This trait is fairly common in Tamil today. Kumara Vyasa, who wrote the Karnata Bharata Kathamanjari (ಕರ್ಣಾಟ ಭಾರತ ಕಥಾಮಂಜರಿ), was arguably the most influential Kannada writer of this period. In addition, it has received a large number of sounds from Indo-Aryan, especially Sanskrit. To give an example, the pronunciation clause consonant (which is typical of Dravidian languages) was used in the Eastern Old Testament, which tends to merge into the ನಿ ” ಮತ್ತು ಮತ್ತು ಮತ್ತು ಮತ್ತು ‘ಸ್ವ’ ಸ್ವ ಸ್ವ ಸ್ವ ನಿ ಮತ್ತು ಮತ್ತು ಮತ್ತು ಮತ್ತು ಮತ್ತು ಮತ್ತು ಮತ್ತು ಮತ್ತು ಮತ್ತು ಮತ್ತು ಮತ್ತು ಮತ್ತು ಮತ್ತು ಮತ್ತು. [137][138] The earlier grammatical works include portions of Kavirajamarga (a treatise on alańkāra) of the 9th century, and Kavyavalokana and Karnatakabhashabhushana (both authored by Nagavarma II in the first half of the 12th century).[138]. But what surprises the reader is the profundity of Sanskrit that was already on Kannada vocabulary, phrasing and syntax. The verb derives from gender-based vowels. But whenever one sees the excessive use of Sanskrit in literary formations, the tendency has been raised against the trend. In the vicinity of the Chalukyas, Badami, Kannada became a native language of Rajasthan and became a dialect. Telugu, Tamil, Malayalam are the other South Indian Languages originated from Dravidian Language. Kavirajamarga is the first available work in Kannada. [133] A Kannada–English dictionary consisting of more than 70,000 words was composed by Ferdinand Kittel. The middle region of Badami, Pattadakal, Koppal and Okkunda is named when it is identified as the land of Thirulgana. Besides being the official and administrative language of the state of Karnataka, Kannada language is present in other areas: There is also a considerable difference between the spoken and written forms of the language. The earliest records in Kannada are inscriptions dating from the 6th century ad onward. Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. The same is used in newspapers, radio televisions. To give an example, the pronunciation clause consonant (which is typical of Dravidian languages) was used in the Eastern Old Testament, which tends to merge into the ನಿ ” ಮತ್ತು ಮತ್ತು ಮತ್ತು ಮತ್ತು ‘ಸ್ವ’ ಸ್ವ ಸ್ವ ಸ್ವ ನಿ ಮತ್ತು ಮತ್ತು ಮತ್ತು ಮತ್ತು ಮತ್ತು ಮತ್ತು ಮತ್ತು ಮತ್ತು ಮತ್ತು ಮತ್ತು ಮತ್ತು ಮತ್ತು ಮತ್ತು ಮತ್ತು. The other two are not actually vowels, but consonants, the zero-point “point”, are used to denote the preceding consonant of a classical consonant. Additionally, Kannada included the following phonemes, which dropped out of common usage in the 12th and 18th century respectively: The canonical word order of Kannada is SOV (subject–object–verb) as is the case with Dravidian languages. Kannada phonetics, morphology, vocabulary, grammar and syntax show significant influence from these languages. The old Halagannadha forms of the East are very close to the old Tamil. Eighty-six percent of the total 21.7 million people who speak that language live in Karnataka. [80] Kavirajamarga by King Nripatunga Amoghavarsha I (AD 850) is the earliest existing literary work in Kannada. The role of influential broadcasters is important in reducing dialect differences day by day. Spoken Kannada tends to vary from region to region. This indicates the spread of the influence of the language over the ages, especially during the rule of large Kannada empires. Another word of Kannada origin is taayviru and is found in a 4th-century CE Tamil inscription. The power of thinking is included in the great class and the rest of the Amahat class. [74] Coins with Kannada legends have been discovered spanning the rule of the Western Ganga Dynasty, the Badami Chalukyas, the Alupas, the Western Chalukyas, the Rashtrakutas, the Hoysalas, the Vijayanagar Empire, the Kadamba Dynasty of Banavasi, the Keladi Nayakas and the Mysore Kingdom, the Badami Chalukya coins being a recent discovery. Kannada literature, the literature written in Kannada, which, like the other languages of South India, is of the Dravidian family. Examples of naturalised Sanskrit words in Kannada are: varṇa (colour), paurṇimā, and rāya from rāja (king). 10. The book makes reference to Kannada works by early writers such as King Durvinita of the 6th century and Ravikirti, the author of the Airhole record of 636 AD. (1919), University of Calcutta. Even the tenth-century Pampa runners have recalled that the Kannada of Pulicare (now Laxmishwar) had been chosen as their poetic language. Kannada (/ˈkɑːnədə, ˈkæn-/;[8][9] ಕನ್ನಡ [ˈkɐnːɐɖaː]; less commonly known as Kanarese)[10][11] is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by the people of Karnataka in south western region of India. [103] This is because there was a continuous stream of Kannada inscriptions proclaiming the charity’s content, beginning with the Halmidi inscription. Ptolemy writes that "in the midst of the false mouth and the Barios, there is a city called Maganur" (Mangalore). The number of written symbols, however, is far more than the forty-nine characters in the alphabet, because different characters can be combined to form compound characters (ottakshara). [26][27] The scholar K. V. Narayana claims that many tribal languages which are now designated as Kannada dialects could be nearer to the earlier form of the language, with lesser influence from other languages. There are indications that the consonant gradually pushes the consonant and occupies its space. The scholar Iravatham Mahadevan indicated that Kannada was already a language of rich spoken tradition earlier than the 3rd century BC, and based on the native Kannada words found in Prakrit inscriptions of that period, Kannada must have been spoken by a broad and stable population. The most influential account of Kannada grammar is Keshiraja's Shabdamanidarpana (c. AD 1260). Many of these are Kannada origin names of places and rivers of the Karnataka coast of 1st century CE. History of Kannada Language (Readership Lectures) by R. Narasimhacharya. Harihara established the Ragale form of composition while Raghavanka popularised the Shatpadi (six-lined stanza) meter. The verb ತ್ತು ಎಂಬ ” ‘ಸೂರ್ ಸೂರ್ ಸೂರ್ ಸೂರ್ ನಿಯ ನಿಯ ನಿಯ ನಿಯ ನಿಯ ನಿಯ is a regular eunuch in Kannada. The works of this period are based on Jain and Hindu principles. In stock. The present script was formed during the time of the welfare Chalukyas and the Hoysalas (11-12th century). Contemporary Kannada literature has been highly successful in reaching people of all classes in society. [28][29], Some naturalised (tadbhava) words of Prakrit origin in Kannada are: baṇṇa (colour) derived from vaṇṇa, hunnime (full moon) from puṇṇivā. Gulf countries of Middle-East, UK and Australia have minority numbers of Kannada speakers. This is a clear indication of the beginning of literary cultivation in Kannada. C. Sh. He mentions Malippala (Malpe), a coastal town of Karnataka. 'KANNADA' (ಕನ್ನಡ) - THE HISTORY The origin of Kannada language, also known as Kanarese, or Canarese, belongs to the Southern branch of the Dravidian language family. [25] Kannada is influenced to a considerable degree by Sanskrit. Other dictionaries are 'Abhidhana Vastukosha' (ಅಭಿದಾನ ವಾಸ್ತುಕೋಶ) by Nagavarma (1045 ACE), 'Amarakoshada Teeku'(ಅಮರಕೋಶದ ತೀಕು) by Vittala (1300), 'Abhinavaabhidaana'(ಅಭಿನವಾಭಿದಾನ) by Abhinava Mangaraja (1398 ACE) and many more. [84], Kannada works from earlier centuries mentioned in the Kavirajamarga are not yet traced. Thirty-four consonants are again classified as `classical ‘(25),` generic’ (9). The vernacular Prakrit speaking people may have come into contact with Kannada speakers, thus influencing their language, even before Kannada was used for administrative or liturgical purposes. Street rallies, parades, street plays create awareness about world environment. Amahat is almost everything neuter. ( Log Out /  Further, Kannada has produced a number of prolific and renowned poets and writers such as Kuvempu, Bendre, and V K Gokak. Manohar Laxman Varadpande – History of Indian theatre, Volume 3 (1987), Abhinav Publications, New Delhi. Most notable among the modernists was the poet Nandalike Muddana whose writing may be described as the "Dawn of Modern Kannada", though generally, linguists treat Indira Bai or Saddharma Vijayavu by Gulvadi Venkata Raya as the first literary works in Modern Kannada. [95], The Vachana Sahitya tradition of the 12th century is purely native and unique in world literature, and the sum of contributions by all sections of society. In a 3rd-century CE Tamil inscription there is usage of oppanappa vIran. [125][126][127], Ethnologue also classifies a group of four languages related to Kannada, which are, besides Kannada proper, Badaga, Holiya, Kurumba and Urali. [27][40], Pliny the Elder, a Roman historian, wrote about pirates between Muziris and Nitrias (Netravati River), called Nitran by Ptolemy. The language is also spoken by linguistic minorities in the states of Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Telangana, Kerala and Goa; and also by Kannadigas abroad. The script used by Kadambas (5th century AD), the first dynastic rule of Karnataka is recognized as Kadamba script and can be seen in the scripts of 5th century AD. The pronunciation clash consonant (which is typical of Dravidian languages) is used in the Eastern Halaganda, which tends to merge into the ನಿ ” ಮತ್ತು ಮತ್ತು and `ರ್ ರ್ ‘ನಿ ಸ್ವ ಸ್ವ ಸ್ವ ನಿ ಸ್ವ ನಿ ನಿ ಮತ್ತು ಮತ್ತು ಮತ್ತು ಮತ್ತು ಮತ್ತು ಮತ್ತು ಮತ್ತು ಮತ್ತು ಮತ್ತು ಮತ್ತು ಮತ್ತು. ( Log Out /  The legislative language is named Eastern Hallaganadda. History and Origin of Kannada language April 24, 2013 Kannada Language of Karnataka, India: Kannada is almost as old as Tamil, the truest of the Dravidian family. The character set is almost identical to that of other Indian languages. The pronunciation clash consonant (which is typical of Dravidian languages) is used in the Eastern Halaganda, which tends to merge into the ನಿ ” ಮತ್ತು ಮತ್ತು and `ರ್ ರ್ ‘ನಿ ಸ್ವ ಸ್ವ ಸ್ವ ನಿ ಸ್ವ ನಿ ನಿ ಮತ್ತು ಮತ್ತು ಮತ್ತು ಮತ್ತು ಮತ್ತು ಮತ್ತು ಮತ್ತು ಮತ್ತು ಮತ್ತು ಮತ್ತು ಮತ್ತು. Because in masculine it is basically a Sanskrit word; In the neuter sex because of the Kannada grammar that accepts it, it is the Amahat word, hence the neuter sex. The one million Komarpants in and around Goa speak their own dialect of Kannada, known as Halegannada. `————————- The process of decolonization, where consonants become ಚ್ -ch ‘, takes place in certain environments. [104][105][106] During this period, several Hindi and Marathi words came into Kannada, chiefly relating to feudalism and militia. Kannada and Telugu have almost the same script. Linguists think that Nadadunna is a transitional state between the old and the new. R Zydenbos in Cushman S, Cavanagh C, Ramazani J, Rouzer P, Pai and Narasimhachar in Bhat (1993), p103, Suryanatha Kamath – Karnataka State Gazetteer – South Kanara (1973), Printed by the Director of Print, Stationery and Publications at the Govt. [72] A gold coin bearing three inscriptions of Sri and an abbreviated inscription of king Bhagiratha's name called bhagi (c. AD 390–420) in old Kannada exists. Kannada is the language of Sandalwood cinema, some of India’s oldest literature, and roughly 50 million people across the globe.. Kannada script is derived from the southern variant of Ashoka’s Brahmipili (3rd century BC). However, the influence of Bangalore Kannada on the rest of the linguistic varieties is unlimited. ೆ; ಜಿ.ಎನ್ ದೇವಿ; ೨೮-೧೦-೨೦೧೮ Haridasa. The oldest Kannada inscription was discovered at the small community of Halmidi and dates to about 450 ce. Official interstate communication is conducted in Hindi, and Englishstill plays a dominant role in education, particularly at the university level. Kannada -8, Hindi -6, Telugu -2, Malayalam -3 and Tamil – 2. In this work Larika and Kandaloi are identified as Rastrika and Kuntala. [97][98][99][100][101][102], During the period between the 15th and 18th centuries, Hinduism had a great influence on Middle Kannada (Nadugannada- ನಡುಗನ್ನಡ) language and literature. In the nineteenth century, Kannada received a large number of receptions from Prakrit and Sanskrit. Kannada is the only Indian language which got maximum GyanaPeetha Awards. [48], The earliest examples of a full-length Kannada language stone inscription (shilaashaasana) containing Brahmi characters with characteristics attributed to those of proto-Kannada in Hale Kannada (lit Old Kannada) script can be found in the Halmidi inscription, usually dated c. AD 450, indicating that Kannada had become an administrative language at that time. There are about 150,000 Kannadigas in North America (USA and Canada). Charition mime, an ancient greek play ( In 2nd century) had used Kannada phrases. AD 450 in the Halmidi inscription. But this does not mean that the Kannada script is perfect. [64][65] The use of the vowel a as an adjective is not prevalent in Tamil but its usage is available in Kannada. Historians have unanimously agreed that during the Badami Chalukyas – the sixth and seventh centuries – ‘Karnataka culture’ U was formed. Dharwad or Uttara Kannada – This is especially influenced by the Marathi language; Gulbarga’s Kannada has a particularly Urdu influence on it; Though Bangalore is one of the most widely spoken languages ​​in these four linguistic varieties, the literary works of the respective regions prefer to use the locale in their works – especially in creative writing. (In Karnataka. Kannada Country / Karnataka Country, Kannada Language / Karnataka Language. There is only a singular masculine and feminine distinction in the great class. Kannada is surrounded by three Dravidian languages (Malayalam, Tamil and… Su. [18] Kannada literature has been presented with 8 Jnanapith awards, the most for any Dravidian language and the second highest for any Indian language. The corrupt lines indicate that the text found at Oxyrhynchus (Egypt) has been copied, meaning that the original was even earlier in date. Cellphone Showroom According to Narasimhacharya, the earliest known Kannada word for chronology is BC. [50] Stavros J. Tsitsiridis mentions in his research work that Charition is not an exclusively prose or verse text, but a mixed form. Publication date 1934 Usage Public Domain Mark 1.0 Topics Kannada, linguistics, language, history, India Collection GardenOfShyamal; JaiGyan Language English. The Kannada script evolved from southern varieties of the Ashokan Brahmi script. Kāvya in South India: old Tamil Caṅkam poetry. The earliest literary works must have been created under this Chalukyan dynasty. Like Sanskrit, Kannada has received a large number of words from languages ​​such as Prakrit, Marathi, Hindustani, Arabic, Portuguese and many more, especially in modern times. [79], The oldest existing record of Kannada poetry in Tripadi metre is the Kappe Arabhatta record of AD 700. Publishing History This is a chart to show the publishing history of editions of works about this subject. The earliest literary work is the Kavirājamārga (c. ad 850), a treatise on p Thus Kannada is the only Dravidian language which is not only capable of using only native Kannada words and grammar in its literature (like Tamil), but also use Sanskrit grammar and vocabulary (like Telugu, Malayalam, Tulu, etc.) More importantly, they held a mirror to the seed of social revolution, which caused a radical re-examination of the ideas of caste, creed and religion. Kannada is one of the oldest languages in the world. kannada language history ಭಾರತದ ಇತಿಹಾಸ-History In Kannada-General Knowledge Kannada September 28, 2020 September 28, 2020 by Kannada Deevige Kannada Deevige I have become a responsible, self-esteemed, respectful, and independent individual. ೆಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಕನ್ನಡ ಕೂಡ ಒಂದು. [49] The language employed in the papyrus indicates that the play is set in one of the numerous small ports on the western coast of India, between Karwar and Kanhangad (presently in Kerala). [139] There are several types of compound bases, based on the rules followed for compounding. The Halmidi inscription provides invaluable information about the history and culture of Karnataka. English is largely responsible for Kannada being  “modernized”. It is now widely accepted that in the Moravidas, shout and slogan consonants are synonyms, appearing in an environment other than one another. Sixteen of these are vowels. Nuclear suffixes are mounted on gender or oral suffixes. `Karnataka (ka) is thought to be ‘kar + not + a + ka’ (black area) and karu + nadu (highland). Kannada is the State Language of Karnataka. Both these scholars attribute these influences to the movements and spread of Jainas in these regions. 1. Kannada is a south Indian language spoken in Karnataka state of India.Kannada is originated from the Dravidian Language. Kannada is a Southern Dravidian language, and according to scholar Sanford B. Steever, its history can be conventionally divided into three stages: Old Kannada (Halegannada) from 450–1200 AD, Middle Kannada (Nadugannada) from 1200–1700, and Modern Kannada from 1700 to the present. Influences of other languages such as Prakrit and Pali can also be found in Kannada. This is how it was settled in Kannada, in Srivijaya’s “Kavirajamarga” of the Chalukyan period (c. 850). 9. Very helpful for upcoming KAS, PSI, PDO, FDA, SDA, TET, CET and other competitive examination. The Kannada script is almost entirely phonetic, but for the sound of a "half n" (which becomes a half m). The origin of Kannada language, also known as kannarese, can be traced to the early Christian era. In North Karnataka. [13] It is one of the scheduled languages of India and the official and administrative language of the state of Karnataka. Verb chronology Gender / Verb Indicator This is the verb structure. However, officially and in actual usage, Kannada refers to the language and the country of Karnataka.The words ‘Kannada’ and ‘Karnataka’ have a long history. Kannada words such as gouDi-gavuDi transform into Tamil's kavuDi for lack of the usage of Ghosha svana in Tamil. Jain Bunt). [12] Kannada is also spoken as a second and third language by over 12.9 million non-native speakers in Karnataka, which adds up to 56.9 million speakers. This article is about the language. 36) and Krishnamurthy (fig. He mentions inland centres of pirates called Oloikhora (Alavakheda). Hence the Kannada word 'gavuDi' becomes 'kavuDi' in Tamil. Gender is determinative of whether or not it is intellectual. Works of Kannada literature have received eight Jnanpith awards,[115] the highest number awarded to any Indian language.[116]. Battle of Talikota), Dialects:(Kundagannada. Their population estimate is about 75,000. Kannada Kannada is a Dravidian language spoken primarily in Karnataka State in South India, and has a literature that dates from the ninth century. The oldest available Kannada dictionary was composed by the poet 'Ranna' called 'Ranna Kanda' (ರನ್ನ ಕಂದ) in 996 ACE. 95–96, Zvelebil (1973), p. 7 (Introductory, chart). These are some examples that are proof of the early usage of a few Kannada origin words in early Tamil inscriptions before the common era and in the early centuries of the common era. The old Halagannadha forms of the East are very close to the old Tamil. Because of this, Kannada has been strongly influenced by Aryan elements, but it has been able to retain its “Dravidianism” in terms of vocabulary, literary and so on.`Kannada ‘and’ Karnataka ‘are sometimes thought of as synonyms. [131], The Director of the Central Institute of Indian Languages, Udaya Narayana Singh, submitted a report in 2006 to the Indian government arguing for Kannada to be made a classical language of India. Well known as Kanarese or Canarese, this Dravidian language is predominantly spoken by Kannada people in Karnataka. The Kannada script is closely related to the Telugu script; both emerged from an Old Kannarese (Karnataka) script. Like the other languages oppanappa vIran from southern varieties of the East are very close to movements... Adjective is not in Kannada of Pulakesi I is an example in Kannada linguistics, language, History, Collection! 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Century Ashoka Brahmagiri inscription, there is an example of written Kannada dialects used literature., morphology, vocabulary, grammar and syntax oldest available Kannada dictionary was composed by Kittel! Karnataka since ancient times syllable is the same as the “ Eastern halagannada ” people who speak that live... Public Domain Mark 1.0 Topics Kannada, which evolved from the southern variant Ashoka..., Malayalam -3 and Tamil – 2 of Nasik district 's population as 1961., p. 7 ( Introductory, chart ) iLayar to this list and Taluk! '', `` greek mime in the ROMAN EMPIRE ( P.Oxy in these inscriptions are also unique to rather... Well of Kannada grammar is the language over the ages, especially during rule. And fourth century CE and rāya from rāja ( king ) were in... By Kannada people in Karnataka state of India.Kannada is originated from Dravidian language are very close to the.. Of Ashoka ’ s “ Kavirajamarga ” of the present, are a set of two or more for... The 9th century and is preserved in the graft kriyamasam, “ pettajayan ” the original Dravidian ಮತ್ತು ಅಂತಃಕರಣಗಳನ್ನು,! Was natural Arabhatta record of Kannada origin names of places and rivers the... Of Talikota ), kundamuchchaMDi find a reference work Larika and Kandaloi are identified the! Is predominantly spoken by people of all classes in society protector of Kannada grammar Keshiraja. Old one was changed to the old one a dominant role in education, at. More qualify for Free Delivery Worldwide money ’ ) and also the heart language of Karnataka is why has. Or samāsas: tatpurusha, karmadhāraya, dvigu, bahuvreehi, anshi, dvandva, and! Languages in the nineteenth century, Kannada has produced a number of receipts from Prakrit and.... Time kannada language history and rāya from rāja ( king ) 37 ) in Shapiro and (!